A total of more than 240 human space flights have been completed to date, involving about 450 astronauts from various countries, for a combined total presence in space of more than 70 years. The seventh long-duration expedition crew is currently in residence aboard the International Space Station, continuing a permanent presence in space that began in October 2000. During that time, investigations have been conducted on both humans and animal models to study the bone demineralization and muscle deconditioning, space motion sickness, the causes and possible treatment of postflight orthostatic intolerance, the changes in immune function, crew and crew-ground interactions, and the medical issues of living in a space environment, such as the effects of radiation or the risk of developing kidney stones.
Some results of these investigations have led to fundamental discoveries about the adaptation of the human body to the space environment. Gilles Clément has been active in this research. This readable text presents the findings from the life science experiments conducted during and after space missions.
Topics discussed in this book include: adaptation of sensory-motor, cardio-vascular, bone, and muscle systems to the microgravity of spaceflight; psychological and sociological issues of living in a confined, isolated, and stressful environment; operational space medicine, such as crew selection, training and in-flight health monitoring, countermeasures and support; results of space biology experiments on individual cells, plants, and animal models; and the impact of long-duration missions such as the human mission to Mars. The author also provides a detailed description of how to fly a space experiment, based on his own experience with research projects conducted onboard Salyut-7, Mir, Spacelab, and the Space Shuttle.
Now is the time to look at the future of human spaceflight and what comes next. The future human exploration of Mars captures the imagination of both the public and the scientific community. Many physiological, psychological, operational, and scientific issues need to be solved before the first crew can explore the enigmatic Red Planet. This book also identifies the showstoppers that can be foreseen and what we need to learn to fully understand the implications and risks of such a mission.
Table of contents
- Preface by Dr. Didier Schmitt. Preface by Dr. Douglas Hamilton. Foreword. Acknowledgements.
- I: Introduction to Space Life Sciences.
- 1: Space Life Sciences: What Is It?
1.1. Objectives. 1.2. The Space Environment. 1.3. Justification for Human Spaceflight. 1.4. Where we are.
- 2: The Legacy of Space Life Sciences Research.
2.1. Major Space Life Sciences Event. 2.2. Survising the Odyssey. 2.3. Life Support Systems.
- 3: Challenges Facing Humans in Space.
3.1. Astronauts' Health Maintenance. 3.2. Environmental Health during Space Missions. 3.3. Human Mars Mission. 3.4. Countermeasures. 3.5. Artificial Gravity. 3.6. A New Science is Born.
- 4: References.
- II: Space Biology.
- 1: What is Life?
1.1. Life on Earth. 1.2. Life on Mars.
- 2: Gravitational Biology.
2.1. Questions. 2.2. Results of Space Experiments. 2.3. Bioprocessing in Space.
- 3: Development Biology.
3.1. Questions. 3.2. Results of Space Experiments.
- 4: Plant Biology.
4.1. Questions. 4.2. Results of Space Experiments.
- 5: Radiation Biology.
5.1. Ionized Radiation in Space. 5.2. Biological Effects of Radiation.
- 6: ISS Facilities for Space Biology.
- 7: References.
- III: The Neuro-Sensory System in Space.
- 1: The Problem: Space Motion Sickness.
- 2: Vestibular Function.
2.1. The Vestibular System. 2.2. The Other Senses.
- 3: Effects of Spaceflight on Posture and Movement.
3.1. Rest Posture. 3.2. Vestibulo-Spinal Reflexes. 3.3. Locomotion. 3.4.Body Movement. 3.5. Eye Movement.
- 4: Effects of Spaceflight on Spatial Orientation.
4.1. Visual Orientation. 4.2. Cognition.
- 5: What Do We Know?
5.1. Space Motion Sickness (SMS) Experience. 5.2. Theories for Space Motion Sickness. 5.3. Countermeasures.
- 6: References.
- IV: The Cardio-Vascular System in Space.
- 1: The Problem: Postflight Orthostatic Intolerance.
- 2: Physiology of the Cardio-Vascular System.
2.1. Basics. 2.2. Control Mechanism.
- 3: Effects of Spaceflight on the Cardio-Vascular System.
3.1. Launch Position. 3.2. Early On-Orbit. 3.3. Later On-Orbit. 3.4. Postflight.
- 4: What Do We Know?
4.1. Orthostatic Intolerance. 4.2. Pulmonary Function. 4.3. Bed Rest.
- 5: Countermeasures.
- 5.1. In-flight. 5.2. End of Mission.
- V: The Musculo-Skeletal System in Space.
- 1: The Problem: Muscle Atrophy and Bone Loss.
1.1. Muscle Atrophy. 1.2. Bone Loss.
- 2: Muscle and Bone Physiology.
2.1. Muscle Physiology. 2.2. Bone Physiology.
- 3: Effects of Spaceflight on Muscle.
3.1. Decrease in Body Mass. 3.2. Decrease in Muscle Volume and Strength. 3.3. Changes in Muscle Structure.
- 4: Effects of Spaceflight on Bone.
4.1. Human Studies. 4.2. Animal Studies.
- 5: What Do We Know?
5.1. Muscle Atrophy. 5.2. Bone Demineralization.
- 6: Countermeasures.
6.1. Muscle. 6.2. Bone. 6.3. Aging and Space.
- 7: References.
- VI: Psycho-Sociological Issues of Spaceflight.
- 1: The Problem: Reaction to Stress.
1.1. Analogs. 1.2. Space Simulators. 1.3. Actual Space Missions. 1.4. Rules.
- 2: Individual Selection.
2.1. Select-Out Criteria. 2.2. Select-In Criteria. 2.3. Psychological Profile of Astronauts and Cosmonauts.
- 3: Crew Selection.
3.1. Sociological issues. 3.2. Selection issues.
- 4: Assessment of Behavior and Performance.
- 5: Psychological Training and Support.
5.1. Training. 5.2. Support.
- 6: References.
- VII: Operational Space Medicine.
- 1: What Is It?
1.1. Objectives. 1.2. Risk Assessment.
- 2: Astronaut Selection and Training.
2.1. Crew Position. 2.2. Physical Requirements for Astronaut Selection. 2.3. Astronaut Training.
- 3: Prevention: Health Hazards in Space.
3.1. Medical Events during Spaceflight. 3.2. Medical Aspects of Extra-Vehicular Activity. 3.3. Medical Problems of Radiation in Space. 3.4. Conclusion on Space Health Hazards.
- 4: Treatment: Space Medical Facilities.
4.1. Crew Health Care System (CHeCS). 4.2. Telemedicine. 4.3. Emergency and Rescue.
- 5: Future Challenges.
5.1. Human Needs for Long-Duration Missions. 5.2. Controlled Ecological Life Support System. 5.3. Terraforming. 5.4. Conclusion.
- 6: References.
- VIII: Space Life Sciences Investigator's Guide.
- 1: Resources and Constraints of Space Life Sciences Missions.
1.1. Opportunities for Space Life Sciences Experiments. 1.2. Constraints.
- 2: How to "Fly" an Experiment.
2.1. Flight Experiment Selection. 2.2. Experiment Design. 2.3. Hardware Selection. 2.4. Feasability. 2.5. Experiment Integration. 2.6. Crew Science Training. 2.7. In-Flight Science Operations. 2.8. Data Analysis.
- 3: References and Documentation.
Springer Netherlands, 2005, 362 S.
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